Dr. Barbara Hays is a board-certified Ob/Gyn in Sacramento, Calif. In our "Ask an Ob/Gyn" series, Dr. Hays answers questions readers have posted on the Healthgrades Facebook page. Q: My friend told me her Ob/Gyn diagnosed her with candidiasis. I've never heard of it. What is it? A: Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida yeasts, but you probably know it by its other names. Candidiasis in the mouth or throat is called thrush. When it affects the vagina, we generally just call it a yeast infection, although technically it's known as vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Yeast infections are also often referred to as monilial infections. Candida yeasts are always present on your body, but in small amounts. It takes a disruption of some kind to cause them to multiply and cause symptoms. If you have thrush, you'll notice white patches on your tongue, mouth or throat, along with redness and soreness. Yeast infections of the vulva and vagina are best known for the itchiness and thick, clumpy, white discharge they cause, in addition to redness and soreness. Oral thrush is most common in young infants, seniors, and people who have weakened immune systems due to conditions like diabetes, cancer and HIV. It isn't common in healthy adults, unlike yeast infections, which are the second most common vaginal infection in the United States. (The most common is bacterial vaginosis, or BV.) They can be caused by antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes, obesity—even wearing sweaty workout clothes for too long or using bubble bath can create an imbalance in vaginal pH that allows the yeasts to grow. About 90% of yeast infections are caused by Candida albicans, but those caused by other types of Candida are on the rise, and they're tougher to treat. Some are resistant to the usual treatments used. There are plenty of over-the-counter (OTC) ointments, creams and suppositories that can treat yeast infections, but there are also prescription options, including an oral tablet. If you think what you have is vaginal candidiasis but you've never had a yeast infection before, see a doctor. It's possible you have another type of infection, like BV or trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted infection that requires prescription treatment different from the treatments for other types of vulvo-vaginitis. You should also see your doctor if you have recurring yeast infections, or if you're pregnant, so your doctor can work with you on treatment options. Treatments may vary for pregnant women or if you have a resistant type of yeast. Options to prevent recurrent infections may be suggested as well. Some women may be tempted to try at-home remedies like garlic cloves and essential oils, but the most successful treatments are the OTC and prescription drug options (plus there's risk of irritating your sensitive vaginal tissues). Always talk to your own doctor if you have concerns about any vaginal symptoms so you can get the appropriate treatment as quickly as possible. Have a question for Dr. Hays? Like Healthgrades on Facebook and tell us what topics you’d like to hear more about in future installments.