What is urethritis?
Inflammation of the urethra, the small tube through which urine flows to exit the body, is called urethritis. Urethritis can be caused by irritation or infection. Sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and Chlamydia, are common causes of urethritis. Other infectious agents that can cause urethritis include Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Escherichia coli (E coli).
Urethritis can also be associated with Reiter’s syndrome (form of arthritis), which is a complication of some types of infection. Non-infectious causes of urethritis include physical injury or trauma and chemical irritation from soaps, spermicides, lubricants, bubble baths, or other substances.
Urethritis can occur without symptoms in some people. Others may experience symptoms, such as burning with urination, the need to urinate frequently or urgently, penile or vaginal discharge, pain, or fever.
Treatment of non-infectious urethritis may include avoiding irritants or ongoing trauma. Infections are often treatable with antibiotics. Treating partners and avoiding sex during treatment is important when the condition is related to sexually transmitted diseases. Left untreated, urethritis can lead to complications, such as bladder infections; narrowing and scarring of the urethra; infection and inflammation of the testicles, prostate, epididymis or cervix; pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs); and infertility.
Spread of infections causing urethritis to other organs can lead to serious, even life-threatening, complications. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) for symptoms, such as high fever (higher than 101 degrees Fahrenheit), severe nausea and vomiting, or severe pain in the pelvis or abdomen.
Seek prompt medical care if you have symptoms of urethritis or are being treated for it but symptoms recur or are persistent.
What are the symptoms of urethritis?
Some people who have urethritis do not have any symptoms. Some symptoms, such as burning with urination, urinary frequency or urgency, and lower abdominal or pelvic pain, resemble those of a bladder infection. Other symptoms can include discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, and fever.
Common symptoms of urethritis
Common symptoms of urethritis include:
- Abdominal or pelvic pain
- Blood in the semen (hematospermia)
- Bloody or pink-colored urine (hematuria)
- Frequent urination
- Itching feeling of the penis or groin
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Pain or burning with urination
- Pain with ejaculation
- Urgent need to urinate
- Vaginal or penile discharge
Serious symptoms that might indicate a life-threatening condition
In some cases, complications of urethritis can be life threatening. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you, or someone you are with, have any of these life-threatening symptoms including:
What causes urethritis?
Urethritis has both infections and non-infectious causes. Non-infectious causes of urethritis include physical injury or trauma and chemical irritation from soaps, spermicides, lubricants, bubble baths, or other substances.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections are two common, sexually transmitted causes of urethritis. Urethritis caused by N gonorrhoeae is often called gonococcal urethritis; other forms of urethritis are often referred to as nongonococcal urethritis. In addition to chlamydial infections, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Escherichia coli (E coli) can also cause nongonococcal urethritis. Additionally, urethritis, in combination with arthritis and eye inflammation, can be a complication of some types of infections.
What are the risk factors for urethritis?
A number of factors increase the risk of developing urethritis. Not all people with risk factors will get urethritis. Risk factors for urethritis include:
Female gender of reproductive age
Male gender and age between 20 and 35
Multiple sexual partners
Participation in activities that could traumatize the urethra
Personal high-risk sexual behavior (unprotected sex)
Personal history of a sexually transmitted disease, bacterial vaginosis, or recurrent candidiasis
Sexual contact with someone who engages in high-risk sexual behavior or who has had a sexually transmitted disease
Use of deodorant tampons or douches
Use of spermicides or lubricants with irritants
Young age at first sexual intercourse
Reducing your risk of urethritis
You may be able to lower your risk of urethritis by:
Avoiding known irritants
Avoiding sexual intercourse
Engaging in sexual intercourse only with a monogamous partner
Getting tested for sexually transmitted diseases annually if you have multiple sexual partners or a new sexual partner
Using condoms during sexual intercourse
How is urethritis treated?
Treatment of urethritis begins with seeking regular medical care throughout your life. Regular medical care allows a health care professional to provide early screening tests. Regular medical care also provides an opportunity for your health care professional to evaluate your symptoms and your risks for developing urethritis promptly.
Urethritis due to trauma or irritation may resolve when you avoid further trauma or exposure to irritants. Urethritis due to infection is often treated with antibiotics. With sexually transmitted diseases, it is important that your partner be treated at the same time and that you refrain from sex during treatment to avoid reinfection.
Common treatments for urethritis
Common treatments for urethritis include:
Antibiotics, such as azithromycin (Zithromax), doxycycline (Vibramycin), erythromycin, levofloxacin (Levaquin), metronidazole (Flagyl), ofloxacin (Floxin), penicillin V, or tinidazole (Tindamax) for the treatment of infection
Avoidance of trauma or irritants
Non-narcotic pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naprosyn (Naproxen, Aleve), or indomethacin (Indocin), to reduce pain
Phenazopyridine (Pyridium), a pain reliever that is specifically effective for urinary tract pain
What you can do to improve your urethritis
When a sexually transmitted disease, such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomoniasis (sexually transmitted disease caused by a parasite), causes urethritis, following your treatment plan can help reduce your risk of reinfection and complications. Additional ways to improve your urethritis include:
Abstaining from intercourse until you and your partner(s) have completed treatment and have no symptoms
Finishing all medication as prescribed
Getting retested as directed after completing therapy
Referring your sexual partner(s) for testing and treatment
What are the potential complications of urethritis?
Complications of untreated urethritis can be serious, even life threatening in some cases. You can help minimize your risk of serious complications by following the treatment plan you and your health care professional design specifically for you. Complications of urethritis include:
Chronic pelvic pain
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs)
Perinatal transmission of infection to newborn
Prostatitis (inflammation and infection of the prostate)
Reiter syndrome (joint and ocular inflammation)
Urethral scarring and narrowing