How Long COVID-19 Immunity Lasts

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Does COVID-19 infection provide long-lasting immunity? How about COVID-19 vaccination? The answers to those questions are critical as society moves forward to control further spread of infection. Unfortunately, no one yet knows exactly how long COVID-19 immunity persists, partly because the disease is so new and partly because individuals’ immune responses differ based on factors scientists are still working to understand. Studies so far suggest COVID-19 immunity may last years if not decades.

COVID-19 Immunity Basics 

When the human immune system encounters a virus, such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19, it generates antibodies that target the virus and tag it for destruction by the immune system. It takes time for the body to build up enough antibodies to mount a defense. Generally, within a few days the bloodstream is teaming with antibodies. These antibodies linger in the blood for a while, gradually tapering off over a period of weeks or months. Other immune cells, specifically T and B cells, act as memory cells and stand ready to help the body generate a broad immune response should it encounter the same germ again in the future.

Researchers have learned that COVID-19 antibodies are still present in the blood of most people approximately six months after infection. They have also found that T and B cells are present up to eight months after infection. T and B cells are the key to long-term immunity: T and B cells developed in response to other diseases can persist for years or decades. Data so far has virologists and immunologists thinking COVID-19 immunity has the potential to last years.

COVID-19 Immunity After Infection 

The persistence of immunity after COVID-19 may depend on the severity of disease and the overall health of the individual’s immune system.

One study of 77 people who recovered from mostly mild cases of COVID-19 revealed that antibody levels dropped significantly in the four months after infection, but then gradually slowed. Eleven months after infection, researchers could still detect COVID-19 antibodies. (However, no one yet knows what level of antibody presence is necessary to mount an effective defense against infection.)

Some researchers believe that many people who have had COVID-19 will make anti-COVID antibodies for decades, according to an article by Turner et al. published in the May 2021 issue of the journal Nature.

Scientists are still studying the persistence of B and T cells generated in response to COVID-19. However, they know that some people who were infected with SARS-CoV-1, the coronavirus that caused the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak, still have relevant B and T cells. Some survivors of the 1918 flu pandemic still had some immunity to that particular influenza virus nearly 90 years later.

COVID-19 immunity after infection is not absolute. The first case of COVID reinfection was reported on August 28, 2020. A May 2021 brief from the World Health Organization (WHO) states that “available scientific data suggests that in most people immune responses remain robust and protective against reinfection for at least 6-8 months after infection.” People who recover from COVID-19 infection, or who test positive and remain asymptomatic, are still encouraged to get vaccinated.

COVID-19 Immunity After Vaccination 

COVID-19 vaccines first gained emergency approval in the United States in December 2020, so researchers don’t yet have a lot of data about immunity after vaccination. However, preliminary studies suggest that COVID-19 vaccine immunity may persist for years, based on demonstrated robust immune activity 15 weeks after participants’ first dose of vaccine.

It is not clear at this point if booster shots will be required to maintain COVID-19 immunity after vaccination. Researchers continue to study COVID-19 immunity duration after vaccination and infection.

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Medical Reviewer: William C. Lloyd III, MD, FACS
Last Review Date: 2021 Jul 15
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