Lisinopril - Use TABLET
Lisinopril is contraindicated in combination with a neprilysin inhibitor (e.g., sacubitril). Do not administer Lisinopril tablet USP within 36 hours of switching to or from sacubitril/valsartan, a neprilysin inhibitor [see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ( 5.2)].
Lisinopril is contraindicated in patients with:
- a history of angioedema or hypersensitivity related to previous treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
- hereditary or idiopathic angioedema
Do not co-administer aliskiren with lisinopril in patients with diabetes [see DRUG INTERACTIONS ( 7.4)].
Use In Specific Populations
Lisinopril can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population(s) are unknown. In the general U.S. population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk:
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions:
Oligohydramnios in pregnant women who use drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus.
Perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra-amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of pregnancy. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to lisinopril for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occur in neonates with a history of in utero exposure to lisinopril, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and substituting for disordered renal function.
No data are available regarding the presence of lisinopril in human milk or the effects of lisinopril on the breast fed infant or on milk production. Lisinopril is present in rat milk. Because of the potential for severe adverse reactions in the breastfed infant, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with lisinopril.
Antihypertensive effects and safety of lisinopril have been established in pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ( 2.1) and CLINICAL STUDIES ( 14.1)] . No relevant differences between the adverse reaction profile for pediatric patients and adult patients were identified.
Safety and effectiveness of lisinopril have not been established in pediatric patients under the age 6 or in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ( 2.1), CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ( 12.3), and CLINICAL STUDIES ( 14.1)] .
Neonates with A History of In Utero Exposure to Lisinopril
If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function.
No dosage adjustment with lisinopril is necessary in elderly patients. In a clinical study of lisinopril in patients with myocardial infarctions (GISSI-3 Trial) 4,413 (47%) were 65 and over, while 1,656 (18%) were 75 and over. In this study, 4.8 % of patients aged 75 years and older discontinued lisinopril treatment because of renal dysfunction vs. 1.3% of patients younger than 75 years. No other differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
ACE inhibitors, including lisinopril, have an effect on blood pressure that is less in black patients than in non blacks.
Dose adjustment of lisinopril is required in patients undergoing hemodialysis or whose creatinine clearance is ≤ 30 mL/min. No dose adjustment of lisinopril is required in patients with creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ( 2.4) and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ( 12.3)] .