CRESTOR - Pharmacology Rosuvastatin calcium

Pharmacology refers to the chemical makeup and behavior of CRESTOR (rosuvastatin calcium tablet, film coated).

Description

CRESTOR (rosuvastatin calcium) is a synthetic lipid-lowering agent for oral administration.

The chemical name for rosuvastatin calcium is bis[(E)-7-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-isopropyl-2-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino] pyrimidin-5-yl](3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoic acid] calcium salt with the following structural formula:

3a498c46 5ad2 416a 875e 18e48b586954 01.jpg

The empirical formula for rosuvastatin calcium is (C22H27FN3O6S)2Ca and the molecular weight is 1001.14. Rosuvastatin calcium is a white amorphous powder that is sparingly soluble in water and methanol, and slightly soluble in ethanol. Rosuvastatin calcium is a hydrophilic compound with a partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 0.13 at pH of 7.0.

CRESTOR Tablets for oral administration contain 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg of rosuvastatin and the following inactive ingredients: Each tablet contains: microcrystalline cellulose NF, lactose monohydrate NF, tribasic calcium phosphate NF, crospovidone NF, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose NF, triacetin NF, titanium dioxide USP, yellow ferric oxide, and red ferric oxide NF.

Clinical Pharmacology

mechanism of action

CRESTOR is a selective and competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of cholesterol. In vivo studies in animals, and in vitro studies in cultured animal and human cells have shown rosuvastatin to have a high uptake into, and selectivity for, action in the liver, the target organ for cholesterol lowering. In in vivo and in vitro studies, rosuvastatin produces its lipid-modifying effects in two ways. First, it increases the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell-surface to enhance uptake and catabolism of LDL. Second, rosuvastatin inhibits hepatic synthesis of VLDL, which reduces the total number of VLDL and LDL particles.

pharmacodynamics

CRESTOR dose dependently reduces elevated LDL-cholesterol and reduces total cholesterol and triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol [see Clinical Studies (14)]. A therapeutic response to CRESTOR is evident within 1 week of commencing therapy and 90% of maximum response is usually achieved in 2 weeks. The maximum response is usually achieved by 4 weeks and is maintained after that. Individualization of drug dosage should be based on the therapeutic response [see Dosage and Administration (2)].

pharmacokinetics

Absorption

In clinical pharmacology studies in man, peak plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were reached 3 to 5 hours following oral dosing. Both Cmax and AUC increased in approximate proportion to CRESTOR dose. The absolute bioavailability of rosuvastatin is approximately 20%.

Administration of CRESTOR with food did not affect the AUC of rosuvastatin.

The AUC of rosuvastatin does not differ following evening or morning drug administration.

Distribution

Mean volume of distribution at steady-state of rosuvastatin is approximately 134 liters. Rosuvastatin is 88% bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin. This binding is reversible and independent of plasma concentrations.

Elimination

Rosuvastatin is primarily eliminated by excretion in the feces. The elimination half-life of rosuvastatin is approximately 19 hours.

Metabolism

Rosuvastatin is not extensively metabolized; approximately 10% of a radiolabeled dose is recovered as metabolite. The major metabolite is N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, which is formed principally by cytochrome P450 \ 2C9, and in vitro studies have demonstrated that N-desmethyl rosuvastatin has approximately one-sixth to one-half the HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitory activity of the parent compound. Overall, greater than 90% of active plasma HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitory activity is accounted for by the parent compound.

Excretion

Following oral administration, rosuvastatin and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the feces (90%).

After an intravenous dose, approximately 28% of total body clearance was via the renal route, and 72% by the hepatic route.

Specific Populations

Racial or Ethnic Groups

A population pharmacokinetic analysis revealed no clinically relevant differences in pharmacokinetics among Caucasian, Hispanic, and Black or Afro-Caribbean groups. However, pharmacokinetic studies, including one conducted in the US, have demonstrated an approximate 2‑fold elevation in median exposure (AUC and Cmax) in Asian subjects when compared with a Caucasian control group.

Male and Female Patients

There were no differences in plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin between men and women.

Pediatric Patients

In a population pharmacokinetic analysis of two pediatric trials involving patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia 10 to 17 years of age and 8 to 17 years of age, respectively, rosuvastatin exposure appeared comparable to or lower than rosuvastatin exposure in adult patients.

Geriatric Patients

There were no differences in plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin between the nonelderly and elderly populations (age ≥65 years).

Patients with Renal Impairment

Mild to moderate renal impairment (CLcr ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2) had no influence on plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin. However, plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin increased to a clinically significant extent (about 3‑fold) in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) not receiving hemodialysis compared with healthy subjects (CLcr >80 mL/min/1.73 m2).

Hemodialysis

Steady-state plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin in patients on chronic hemodialysis were approximately 50% greater compared with healthy volunteer subjects with normal renal function.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment

In patients with chronic alcohol liver disease, plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin were modestly increased.

In patients with Child‑Pugh A disease, Cmax and AUC were increased by 60% and 5%, respectively, as compared with patients with normal liver function. In patients with Child‑Pugh B disease, Cmax and AUC were increased 100% and 21%, respectively, compared with patients with normal liver function.

Drug Interactions Studies

Rosuvastatin clearance is not dependent on metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 to a clinically significant extent.

Rosuvastatin is a substrate for certain transporter proteins including the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion-transporting polyprotein 1B1 (OATP1B1) and efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Concomitant administration of CRESTOR with medications that are inhibitors of these transporter proteins (e.g., cyclosporine, certain HIV protease inhibitors) may result in increased rosuvastatin plasma concentrations [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Drug Interactions (7.1, 7.3)].

Table 4. Effect of Coadministered Drugs on Rosuvastatin Systemic Exposure
Coadministered drug and dosing regimen Rosuvastatin

Mean Ratio
(ratio with/without coadministered drug)
No Effect=1.0

Dose (mg)

Single dose unless otherwise noted.

Change in AUC

Change in Cmax

Cyclosporine – stable dose required (75 mg – 200 mg BID)

10 mg QD for 10 days

7.1

11

Atazanavir/ritonavir combination 300 mg/100 mg QD for 8 days

10 mg

3.1

7

Simeprevir 150 mg QD, 7 days

10 mg, single dose

2.8

(2.3-3.4)

Mean ratio with 90% CI (with/without coadministered drug, e.g., 1= no change, 0.7 = 30% decrease, 11=11 fold increase in exposure)

3.2

(2.6-3.9)

Lopinavir/ritonavir combination 400 mg/100 mg BID for 17 days

20 mg QD for 7 days

2.1

(1.7-2.6)

5

(3.4-6.4)

Gemfibrozil 600 mg BID for 7 days

80 mg

1.9

(1.6-2.2)

2.2

(1.8-2.7)

Eltrombopag 75 mg QD, 5 days

10 mg

1.6

(1.4-1.7)

2

(1.8-2.3)

Darunavir 600 mg/ritonavir 100 mg BID, 7 days

10 mg QD for 7 days

1.5

(1.0-2.1)

2.4

(1.6-3.6)

Tipranavir/ritonavir combination 500 mg/200mg BID for 11 days

10 mg

1.4

(1.2-1.6)

2.2

(1.8-2.7)

Dronedarone 400 mg BID

10 mg

1.4

Itraconazole 200 mg QD, 5 days

10 mg or 80 mg

1.4

(1.2-1.6)

1.3

(1.1-1.4)

1.4

(1.2-1.5)

1.2

(0.9-1.4)

Ezetimibe 10 mg QD, 14 days

10 mg QD for 14 days

  •  1.2
  •  (0.9-1.6)

1.2

(0.8-1.6)

Fosamprenavir/ritonavir 700 mg/100 mg BID for 7 days

10 mg

1.1

1.5

Fenofibrate 67 mg TID for 7 days

10 mg

1.2

(1.1-1.3)

Rifampicin 450 mg QD, 7 days

20 mg

Aluminum & magnesium hydroxide combination antacid

Administered simultaneously
Administered 2 hours apart

40 mg
40 mg

0.5

(0.4-0.5)

0.8

(0.7-0.9)

0.5

(0.4-0.6)

0.8

(0.7-1.0)

Ketoconazole 200 mg BID for 7 days

80 mg

1.0

(0.8-1.2)

1.0

(0.7-1.3)

Fluconazole 200 mg QD for 11 days

80 mg

1.1

(1.0-1.3)

1.1

(0.9-1.4)

Erythromycin 500 mg QID for 7 days

80 mg

0.8

(0.7-0.9)

0.7

(0.5-0.9)

Table 5. Effect of Rosuvastatin Coadministration on Systemic Exposure to Other Drugs
Rosuvastatin Dosage Regimen Coadministered Drug
Mean Ratio (ratio with/without coadministered drug) No Effect=1.0
Name and Dose Change in AUC Change in Cmax

40 mg QD for 10 days

Warfarin

Clinically significant pharmacodynamic effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]

25 mg single dose

R- Warfarin 1.0

(1.0-1.1)

Mean ratio with 90% CI (with/without coadministered drug, e.g., 1= no change, 0.7=30% decrease, 11=11-fold increase in exposure)

S-Warfarin 1.1

(1.0-1.1)

R-Warfarin 1.0

(0.9-1.0)

S-Warfarin 1.0

(0.9-1.1)

40 mg QD for 12 days

Digoxin

0.5 mg single dose

1.0

(0.9-1.2)

1.0

(0.9-1.2)

40 mg QD for 28 days

Oral Contraceptive

(ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg & norgestrel 0.180, 0.215 and 0.250 mg) QD for 21 Days

EE 1.3

(1.2-1.3)

NG 1.3

(1.3-1.4)

EE 1.3

(1.2-1.3)

NG 1.2

(1.1-1.3)

EE = ethinyl estradiol, NG = norgestrel

pharmacogenomics

Disposition of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including rosuvastatin, involves OATP1B1 and other transporter proteins. Higher plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin have been reported in very small groups of patients (n=3 to 5) who have two reduced function alleles of the gene that encodes OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1 521T > C). The frequency of this genotype (i.e., SLCO1B1 521 C/C) is generally lower than 5% in most racial/ethnic groups. The impact of this polymorphism on efficacy and/or safety of rosuvastatin has not been clearly established.

Nonclinical Toxicology

carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in rats at dose levels of 2, 20, 60, or 80 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, the incidence of uterine stromal polyps was significantly increased in females at 80 mg/kg/day at systemic exposure 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC. Increased incidence of polyps was not seen at lower doses.

In a 107-week carcinogenicity study in mice given 10, 60, or 200 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma was observed at 200 mg/kg/day at systemic exposures 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC. An increased incidence of hepatocellular tumors was not seen at lower doses.

Rosuvastatin was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the mouse lymphoma assay, and the chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung cells. Rosuvastatin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.

In rat fertility studies with oral gavage doses of 5, 15, 50 mg/kg/day, males were treated for 9 weeks prior to and throughout mating and females were treated 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout mating until gestation day 7. No adverse effect on fertility was observed at 50 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures up to 10 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). In testicles of dogs treated with rosuvastatin at 30 mg/kg/day for one month, spermatidic giant cells were seen. Spermatidic giant cells were observed in monkeys after 6‑month treatment at 30 mg/kg/day in addition to vacuolation of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Exposures in the dog were 20 times and in the monkey 10 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on body surface area. Similar findings have been seen with other drugs in this class.

animal toxicology & / or pharmacology

Central Nervous System Toxicity

CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhages, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, have been observed in dogs treated with several other members of this drug class. A chemically similar drug in this class produced dose-dependent optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in dogs, at a dose that produced plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose. Edema, hemorrhage, and partial necrosis in the interstitium of the choroid plexus was observed in a female dog sacrificed moribund at day 24 at 90 mg/kg/day by oral gavage (systemic exposures 100 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Corneal opacity was seen in dogs treated for 52 weeks at 6 mg/kg/day by oral gavage (systemic exposures 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Cataracts were seen in dogs treated for 12 weeks by oral gavage at 30 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures 60 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Retinal dysplasia and retinal loss were seen in dogs treated for 4 weeks by oral gavage at 90 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures 100 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Doses ≤30 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures ≤60 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC) did not reveal retinal findings during treatment for up to one year.

Juvenile Toxicology Study

In a juvenile study, rats were dosed by oral gavage with 10 or 50 mg/kg/day from weaning for 9 weeks prior to pairing, throughout pairing and up to the day before necropsy for males or up to gestation day 7 for females. No effects on sexual development, testicular and epididymal appearance or fertility were observed at either dose level (2 times or up to 24 times the human exposure (AUC) at the maximum pediatric dose of 20 mg/day).

Clinical Studies

hyperlipidemia & mixed dyslipidemia

CRESTOR reduces Total‑C, LDL‑C, ApoB, nonHDL‑C, and TG, and increases HDL‑C, in adult patients with hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia.

Dose-Ranging Study: In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in patients with hyperlipidemia CRESTOR given as a single daily dose for 6 weeks significantly reduced Total‑C, LDL‑C, nonHDL‑C, and ApoB, across the dose range (Table 6).

Table 6. Dose-Response in Patients with Hyperlipidemia (Adjusted Mean % Change from Baseline at Week 6)

Dose

N

TotalC

LDLC

Non-HDLC

ApoB

TG

HDLC

Placebo

13

-5

-7

-7

-3

-3

3

CRESTOR 5 mg

17

-33

-45

-44

-38

-35

13

CRESTOR 10 mg

17

-36

-52

-48

-42

-10

14

CRESTOR 20 mg

17

-40

-55

-51

-46

-23

8

CRESTOR 40 mg

18

-46

-63

-60

-54

-28

10

Active-Controlled Study: CRESTOR was compared with the HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin in a multicenter, open-label, dose-ranging study of 2240 patients with hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia. After randomization, patients were treated for 6 weeks with a single daily dose of either CRESTOR, atorvastatin, simvastatin, or pravastatin (Figure 1 and Table 7).

Figure 1. Percent LDLC Change by Dose of CRESTOR, Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, and Pravastatin at Week 6 in Patients with Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia

3a498c46 5ad2 416a 875e 18e48b586954 02.jpg

Box plots are a representation of the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile values, with whiskers representing the 10th and 90th percentile values. Mean baseline LDL‑C: 189 mg/dL

Table 7. Percent Change in LDL-C From Baseline to Week 6 (LS Mean
Corresponding standard errors are approximately 1.00.

) by Treatment Group (Sample Sizes Ranging from 156-167 Patients Per Group)

Treatment Daily Dose

Treatment

10 mg

20 mg

40 mg

80 mg

 

CRESTOR

-46

CRESTOR 10 mg reduced LDL-C significantly more than atorvastatin 10 mg; pravastatin 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg; simvastatin 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg. (p<0.002)

-52

CRESTOR 20 mg reduced LDL-C significantly more than atorvastatin 20 mg and 40 mg; pravastatin 20 mg and 40 mg; simvastatin 20 mg, 40 mg, and 80 mg. (p<0.002)

-55

CRESTOR 40 mg reduced LDL-C significantly more than atorvastatin 40 mg; pravastatin 40 mg; simvastatin 40 mg, and 80 mg. (p<0.002)

---

Atorvastatin

-37

-43

-48

-51

Simvastatin

-28

-35

-39

-46

Pravastatin

-20

-24

-30

---

heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

Active-Controlled Study: In a study of patients with heterozygous FH (baseline mean LDL of 291), patients were randomized to CRESTOR 20 mg or atorvastatin 20 mg. The dose was increased by 6-week intervals. Significant LDL-C reductions from baseline were seen at each dose in both treatment groups (Table 8).

Table 8. Mean LDL-C Percentage Change from Baseline
CRESTOR (n=435)
LS Mean
LS Means are least square means adjusted for baseline LDL-C

(95% CI)

Atorvastatin (n=187)
LS Mean

(95% CI)

Week 6

20 mg

-47% (-49%, -46%)

-38% (-40%, -36%)

Week 12

40 mg

-55% (-57%, -54%)

-47% (-49%, -45%)

Week 18

80 mg

NA

-52% (-54%, -50%)

hypertriglyceridemia

Dose-Response Study: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response study in patients with baseline TG levels from 273 to 817 mg/dL, CRESTOR given as a single daily dose (5 to 40 mg) over 6 weeks significantly reduced serum TG levels (Table 9).

Table 9. Dose-Response in Patients with Primary Hypertriglyceridemia over 6 Weeks Dosing Median (Min, Max) Percent Change from Baseline
Dose Placebo
(n=26)
CRESTOR
5 mg
(n=25)
CRESTOR
10 mg
(n=23)
CRESTOR
20 mg
(n=27)
CRESTOR
40 mg
(n=25)

Triglycerides

1 (-40, 72)

-21 (-58, 38)

-37 (-65, 5)

-37 (-72, 11)

-43 (-80, -7)

nonHDL-C

2 (-13, 19)

-29 (-43, -8)

-49 (-59, -20)

-43 (-74, 12)

-51 (-62, -6)

VLDL-C

2 (-36, 53)

-25 (-62, 49)

-48 (-72, 14)

-49 (-83, 20)

-56 (-83, 10)

Total-C

1 (-13, 17)

-24 (-40, -4)

-40 (-51, -14)

-34 (-61, -11)

-40 (-51, -4)

LDL-C

5 (-30, 52)

-28 (-71, 2)

-45 (-59, 7)

-31 (-66, 34)

-43 (-61, -3)

HDL-C

-3 (-25, 18)

3 (-38, 33)

8 (-8, 24)

22 (-5, 50)

17 (-14, 63)

primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (type iii hyperlipoproteinemia)

In a randomized, multicenter, double-blind crossover study, 32 patients (27 with є2/є2 and 4 with apo E mutation [Arg145Cys] with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia) entered a 6-week dietary lead-in period on the NCEP Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diet. Following dietary lead-in, patients were randomized to a sequence of treatments in conjunction with the TLC diet for 6 weeks each: rosuvastatin 10 mg followed by rosuvastatin 20 mg or rosuvastatin 20 mg followed by rosuvastatin 10 mg. CRESTOR reduced non HDL‑C (primary end point) and circulating remnant lipoprotein levels. Results are shown in the table below.

Table 10. Lipid-modifying Effects of Rosuvastatin 10 mg and 20 mg in Primary Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III hyperlipoproteinemia) After Six Weeks by Median Percent Change (95% CI) from Baseline (N=32)
Median at Baseline (mg/dL) Median percent change from baseline (95% CI) CRESTOR 10 mg Median percent change from baseline (95% CI) CRESTOR 20 mg

Total-C

342.5

– 43.3

(-46.9, – 37.5)

-47.6

(-51.6,-42.8)

Triglycerides

503.5

-40.1

(-44.9, -33.6)

-43.0

(-52.5, -33.1)

NonHDL-C

294.5

-48.2

(-56.7, -45.6)

-56.4

(-61.4, -48.5)

VLDL-C + IDL-C

209.5

-46.8

(-53.7, -39.4)

-56.2

(-67.7, -43.7)

LDL-C

112.5

-54.4

(-59.1, -47.3)

-57.3

(-59.4, -52.1)

HDL-C

35.5

10.2

(1.9, 12.3)

11.2

(8.3, 20.5)

RLP-C

82.0

-56.4

(-67.1, -49.0)

-64.9

(-74.0, -56.6)

Apo-E

16.0

-42.9

(-46.3, -33.3)

-42.5

(-47.1, -35.6)

homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

Dose-Titration Study: In an open-label, forced-titration study, homozygous FH patients (n=40, 8‑63 years) were evaluated for their response to CRESTOR 20 to 40 mg titrated at a 6‑week interval. In the overall population, the mean LDL‑C reduction from baseline was 22%. About one-third of the patients benefited from increasing their dose from 20 mg to 40 mg with further LDL lowering of greater than 6%. In the 27 patients with at least a 15% reduction in LDL‑C, the mean LDL-C reduction was 30% (median 28% reduction). Among 13 patients with an LDL‑C reduction of <15%, 3 had no change or an increase in LDL‑C. Reductions in LDL‑C of 15% or greater were observed in 3 of 5 patients with known receptor negative status.

pediatric patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

CRESTOR was studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, cross-over study in 14 children and adolescents with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. The study included a 4-week dietary lead-in phase during which patients received CRESTOR 10 mg daily, a cross-over phase that included two 6-week treatment periods with either CRESTOR 20 mg or placebo in random order, followed by a 12-week open-label phase during which all patients received CRESTOR 20 mg. Patients ranged in age from 7 to 15 years of age (median 11 years), 50% were male, 71% were Caucasian, 21% were Asian, 7% were Black, and no patients were of Hispanic ethnicity. Fifty percent were on apheresis therapy and 57% were taking ezetimibe. Patients who entered the study on apheresis therapy or ezetimibe continued the treatment throughout the entire study. Mean LDL-C at baseline was 416 mg/dL (range 152 to 716 mg/dL). A total of 13 patients completed both treatment periods of the randomized cross-over phase; one patient withdrew consent due to inability to have blood drawn during the cross-over phase.

CRESTOR 20 mg significantly reduced LDL-C, total cholesterol, ApoB, and non-HDL-C compared to placebo (Table 11).

Table 11. Lipid-modifying Effects of Rosuvastatin in Pediatric Patients 7 to 15 years of Age with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia After 6 Weeks

Placebo

(N=13)

CRESTOR 20 mg

(N=13)

Percent difference (95% CI)

LDL-C (mg/dL)

481

396

-22.3% (-33.5, -9.1)

p=0.005

Total-C (mg/dL)

539

448

-20.1% (-29.7, -9.1)

p=0.003

Non-HDL-C (mg/dL)

505

412

-22.9% (-33.7, ‑10.3)

ApoB (mg/dL)

268

235

-17.1% (-29.2, -2.9)

p=0.024

% Difference estimates are based on transformations of the estimated mean difference in log LDL measurements between CRESTOR and placebo using a mixed model adjusted for study period

pediatric patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

In a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, 12-week study, 176 (97 male and 79 female) children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were randomized to rosuvastatin 5, 10 or 20 mg or placebo daily. Patients ranged in age from 10 to 17 years (median age of 14 years) with approximately 30% of the patients 10 to 13 years and approximately 17%, 18%, 40%, and 25% at Tanner stages II, III, IV, and V, respectively. Females were at least 1 year postmenarche. Mean LDL-C at baseline was 233 mg/dL (range of 129 to 399). The 12-week double-blind phase was followed by a 40-week open label dose-titration phase, where all patients (n=173) received 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg rosuvastatin daily.

Rosuvastatin significantly reduced LDL-C (primary end point), total cholesterol and ApoB levels at each dose compared to placebo. Results are shown in Table 12 below.

Table 12. Lipid-Modifying Effects of Rosuvastatin in Pediatric Patients 10 to 17 years of Age with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (Least-Squares Mean Percent Change from Baseline to Week 12)
Dose (mg) N LDL-C HDL-C Total-C TG
Median percent change
ApoB

Placebo

46

-1%

+7%

0%

-7%

-2%

5

42

-38%

+4%

Difference from placebo not statistically significant

-30%

-13%

-32%

10

44

-45%

+11%

-34%

-15%

-38%

20

44

-50%

+9%

-39%

16%

-41%

At the end of the 12-week, double-blind treatment period, the percentage of patients achieving the LDL-C goal of less than 110 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L) was 0% for placebo, 12% for rosuvastatin 5 mg, 41% for rosuvastatin 10 mg and 41% for rosuvastatin 20 mg. For the 40-week, open-label phase, 71% of the patients were titrated to the maximum dose of 20 mg and 41% of the patients achieved the LDL-C goal of 110 mg/dL.

Rosuvastatin was also studied in a two year open-label, uncontrolled, titration to goal trial that included 175 children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who were 8 to 17 years old (79 boys and 96 girls). All patients had a documented genetic defect in the LDL receptor or in ApoB. Approximately 89% were Caucasian, 7% were Asian, 1% were Black, and fewer than 1% were Hispanic. Mean LDL-C at baseline was 236 mg/dL. Fifty-eight (33%) patients were prepubertal at baseline. The starting rosuvastatin dosage for all children and adolescents was 5 mg once daily. Children 8 to less than 10 years of age (n=41 at baseline) could titrate to a maximum dosage of 10 mg once daily, and children and adolescents 10 to 17 years of age could titrate to a maximum dosage of 20 mg once daily.

The reductions in LDL-C from baseline were generally consistent across age groups within the trial as well as with previous experience in both adult and pediatric controlled trials.

The long-term efficacy of rosuvastatin therapy initiated in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.

slowing of the progression of atherosclerosis

In the Measuring Effects on Intima Media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosuvastatin 40 mg (METEOR) study, the effect of therapy with CRESTOR on carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by B-mode ultrasonography in patients with elevated LDL‑C, at low risk (Framingham risk <10% over ten years) for symptomatic coronary artery disease and with subclinical atherosclerosis as evidenced by carotid intimal-medial thickness (cIMT). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study 984 patients were randomized (of whom 876 were analyzed) in a 5:2 ratio to CRESTOR 40 mg or placebo once daily. Ultrasonograms of the carotid walls were used to determine the annualized rate of change per patient from baseline to two years in mean maximum cIMT of 12 measured segments. The estimated difference in the rate of change in the maximum cIMT analyzed over all 12 carotid artery sites between patients treated with CRESTOR and placebo-treated patients was -0.0145 mm/year (95% CI –0.0196, –0.0093; p<0.0001).

The annualized rate of change from baseline for the placebo group was +0.0131 mm/year (p<0.0001). The annualized rate of change from baseline for the group treated with CRESTOR was -0.0014 mm/year (p=0.32).

At an individual patient level in the group treated with CRESTOR, 52.1% of patients demonstrated an absence of disease progression (defined as a negative annualized rate of change), compared to 37.7% of patients in the placebo group.

primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

In the Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) study, the effect of CRESTOR (rosuvastatin calcium) on the occurrence of major cardiovascular (CV) disease events was assessed in 17,802 men (≥50 years) and women (≥60 years) who had no clinically evident cardiovascular disease, LDL‑C levels <130 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/l) and hs‑CRP levels ≥2 mg/L. The study population had an estimated baseline coronary heart disease risk of 11.6% over 10 years based on the Framingham risk criteria and included a high percentage of patients with additional risk factors such as hypertension (58%), low HDL‑C levels (23%), cigarette smoking (16%), or a family history of premature CHD (12%). Study participants had a median baseline LDL‑C of 108 mg/dL and hsCRP of 4.3 mg/L. Study participants were randomly assigned to placebo (n=8901) or rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily (n=8901) and were followed for a mean duration of 2 years. The JUPITER study was stopped early by the Data Safety Monitoring Board due to meeting predefined stopping rules for efficacy in rosuvastatin-treated subjects.

The primary end point was a composite end point consisting of the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major CV events: CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or an arterial revascularization procedure.

Rosuvastatin significantly reduced the risk of major CV events (252 events in the placebo group vs. 142 events in the rosuvastatin group) with a statistically significant (p<0.001) relative risk reduction of 44% and absolute risk reduction of 1.2% (see Figure 2). The risk reduction for the primary end point was consistent across the following predefined subgroups: age, sex, race, smoking status, family history of premature CHD, body mass index, LDL‑C, HDL‑C, and hsCRP levels.

Figure 2. Time to First Occurrence of Major Cardiovascular Events in JUPITER

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The individual components of the primary end point are presented in Figure 3. Rosuvastatin significantly reduced the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and arterial revascularization procedures. There were no significant treatment differences between the rosuvastatin and placebo groups for death due to cardiovascular causes or hospitalizations for unstable angina.

Rosuvastatin significantly reduced the risk of myocardial infarction (6 fatal events and 62 nonfatal events in placebo-treated subjects vs. 9 fatal events and 22 nonfatal events in rosuvastatin-treated subjects) and the risk of stroke (6 fatal events and 58 nonfatal events in placebo-treated subjects vs. 3 fatal events and 30 nonfatal events in rosuvastatin-treated subjects).

In a post-hoc subgroup analysis of JUPITER subjects (n=1405; rosuvastatin=725, placebo=680) with a hsCRP ≥2 mg/L and no other traditional risk factors (smoking, BP ≥140/90 or taking antihypertensives, low HDL‑C) other than age, after adjustment for high HDL‑C, there was no significant treatment benefit with rosuvastatin treatment.

Figure 3. Major CV Events by Treatment Group in JUPITER

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At one year, rosuvastatin increased HDL‑C and reduced LDL‑C, hsCRP, total cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels (p<0.001 for all versus placebo).

This drug label information is as submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is intended for informational purposes only. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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