Apidra - Use insulin glulisine
APIDRA is contraindicated:
- during episodes of hypoglycemia
- in patients with known hypersensitivity to APIDRA or to any of its excipients; systemic allergic reactions have occurred with APIDRA [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Use In Specific Populations
Available pharmacovigilance data have not established an association with insulin glulisine use during pregnancy and major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations). Animal reproduction studies have been conducted with insulin glulisine in rats and rabbits using regular human insulin as a comparator. Insulin glulisine was given to female rats throughout pregnancy at subcutaneous doses up to 10 units/kg/day (2 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison) and to rabbits during organogenesis at subcutaneous doses up to 1.5 units/kg/day (0.5 times the average human dose, based on body surface area comparison). The effects did not differ from those observed with subcutaneous regular human insulin (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6% to 10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20% to 25% in women with an HbA1c >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo-fetal risk
Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia-related morbidity.
Insulin glulisine was given to pregnant female rabbits during gestation at doses up to 1.5 units/kg/day, resulting in an exposure 0.5 times the average human dose, based on body surface area. Adverse effects on embryo-fetal development, including postimplantation loss and skeletal defects, were observed at dose levels that caused maternal hypoglycemia and mortality.
Insulin glulisine given to pregnant female rats during gestation at doses up to 10 units/kg/day, resulting in an exposure 2 times the average human dose based on body surface area, resulted in maternal toxicity indicative of hypoglycemia but did not adversely affect embryo-fetal development. Postnatal development was not adversely effected following administration of insulin glulisine to pregnant female rats during gestation and throughout lactation at doses up to 8 units/kg/day.
The effects of insulin glulisine did not differ from those observed with regular human insulin used as a comparator in the same studies and administered at the same doses.
Available data from published literature suggest that human insulin products, including APIDRA, are transferred into human milk. There are no adverse reactions reported in the breastfed infants in the literature. There are no data on the effects of exogenous human insulin products, including APIDRA, on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for APIDRA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from APIDRA or from the underlying maternal condition.
APIDRA is indicated for glycemic control in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Use of APIDRA for this indication is supported by evidence from a 26-week, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, non-inferiority study in pediatric patients older than 4 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with APIDRA (n=271) [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].
In the clinical trials, pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus had a higher incidence of severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the two treatment groups compared to adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The dosage of APIDRA must be individualized in pediatric patients based on metabolic needs and frequent monitoring of blood glucose.
In clinical trials, APIDRA was administered to 147 patients ≥65 years of age and 27 patients ≥75 years of age. The majority of this small subset of elderly patients had type 2 diabetes. The change in HbA1c values and hypoglycemia frequencies did not differ by age.
Nevertheless, caution should be exercised when APIDRA is administered to geriatric patients. In elderly patients with diabetes, the initial dosing, dose increments, and maintenance dosage should be conservative to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Patients with renal impairment may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia and may require more frequent APIDRA dose adjustment and more frequent blood glucose monitoring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients with hepatic impairment may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia and may require more frequent APIDRA dose adjustment and more frequent blood glucose monitoring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].