What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is a condition in which there is disordered electrical activity in the brain. Symptoms of epilepsy depend on the exact location and the severity of the brain disturbance. Causes of disturbances in electrical activity in the brain include drug withdrawal, electrolyte imbalances, and injury and infection. However, the cause for seizure activity is often unknown. The symptom most commonly identified with epilepsy is recurrent seizures, which are caused by sudden electrical activity in the brain. Seizures can range from small, short-duration, abnormal sensations to large, spastic convulsions. They are often marked by changes in consciousness and can last anywhere from a few seconds to several minutes. The progression of epilepsy depends on the underlying cause, which could be brain injury, surgery, disease, or a developmental defect. In some cases, epilepsy may resolve spontaneously. Medications can control seizures, allowing you to lead a normal life. Medical treatment is the mainstay of therapy for epilepsy. However, for some patients, if the starting location of your seizures (focus) is identifiable, surgical removal of the part of the brain responsible for the Treatment goals for epilepsy include controlling seizure activity, reducing drug side effects, and preserving quality of life. Medical treatment is the mainstay of therapy for epilepsy. However, for some patients, if the starting location of your seizures (focus) is identifiable, surgical removal of the part of the brain responsible for the problem may be attempted. Alternatively, electrical stimulation is sometimes used to help control seizures. Current research for epilepsy includes the development of better drug therapy and electrical stimulation techniques to control and prevent seizures. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) for any seizure, as prompt medical treatment may reduce the risk and severity of future seizures.